ISBN - 13 : Cliquez sur la zone Internet. Traditionally, management theories have takena psychological approach to leadership, oftenassuming that it is a personality trait located withinan individual. In contrast, the discursive approach toleadership, which is the focus of this book, assumesthat leadership is created through communicationpractices. As a leader, this book will provide you with an in-depthlook at an emerging approach to the study ofbusiness leadership that focuses on language as avehicle for communicating leadership.
The authorsexplore a new definition of leadership as the expressionof ideas in talk or in action that are recognizedby others as capable of progressing tasks or solvingproblems. The practical implication of this view ofleadership suggests that leaders must constantly enactand communicate their relationship to their followersin such a way as to be recognized by them asa leader.
Inside, you and future leaders will learn howto approach leadership more effectively as a communicationpractice that involves and depends upon theresponse of potential followers. In the UK, since the Blair years, public trust in politicians has remained low. The methodology employed in the study is grounded in an approach to studying talk and text known as membership categorisation analysis Hester and Eglin ; Lepper ; Fitzgerald and Housley Category predicates are the sets of assumptions we have, and routinely use, about the sort of rights, responsibilities, expectations, obligations, knowledge, competencies, motives, activities and behaviours associated with these membership categories Jayyusi However, in some situations, such as a political leadership contest, these predicates come to the fore and become an explicit part of the reasoning about various leadership candidates.
In these situations, the qualities and attributes of leadership candidates will be evaluated according to these more or less shared and more or less consistent expectations about what a leader normatively should be like based on the category predicates associated with the role. The expected qualities—those we want to find in our political leaders—continue to conform to the normative category predicates, however. People are not just allocated to a membership category, they are also normatively judged according to the generalised set of expectations associated with that category.
Through analysing the discourse of leadership in an election campaign, it is therefore possible to map not only the discourse surrounding the individual leader but also the set of cultural expectations associated with the political leadership role itself. In the present case, it highlights how evaluations were made through a set of implicit and explicit assumptions about the category predicates Hester and Eglin associated with the leadership category and how these were utilised to construct understandings of leader authenticity.
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In adopting a membership categorisation analysis approach, our analysis is located within a social constructionist paradigm. We focus on category predicates Hester and Eglin relating to the rights, responsibilities, activities and expectations typically associated with categories.
Chapter 1. What Is Emergence?
Working with written texts, membership categorisation analysis has been used to explore media texts relating to, for example, the Montreal Massacre Eglin and Hester , the allocation of blame in the reporting of criminal cases Stetson and the bombings and mass shooting in Norway Stokoe and Attenborough Membership categorisation analysis is fairly novel in the field of leadership studies, with the exception of Fairhurst : Chapter 3 , Larsson and Lundholm and Whittle et al. In the case of authentic leadership, as Parry-Giles observes, the press position themselves as the ultimate judges of authenticity, identifying behaviours that fit with their portrait of an authentic leader, albeit often in contradictory and paradoxical ways.
We extend this argument by examining how the press make sense of whether a particular person Corbyn is, or could be, a member of a particular category political leader.
The author team then shared their collections of category predicates i. It was during this stage of the analysis that the contrasting evaluations were first noted and later systematised into two collections: one portraying authenticity as a leadership strength and the other portraying it as a leadership weakness.
This central finding is elaborated in the analysis below. Our analysis shows how as well as constructing these category predicates as positive leadership attributes, the press also negatively evaluated the same three category predicates in order to construct Corbyn as an ineffective leader. These three aspects of authenticity are now considered in turn. He has tapped into what people are saying and thinking.
It is a speech full of old Left-wing ideas, nursed like grudges. Principled Corbyn was described in the media discourse as having principles that he held passionately, including being against British involvement in foreign wars and the Trident nuclear defence system, and for the nationalisation of public services, income redistribution and the opposition of austerity.
One aspect of the principled discourse emphasised the strength of his beliefs and values. He campaigned for the release of Nelson Mandela when Margaret Thatcher was still calling him a terrorist. This steadfast commitment to his ideals is probably a big reason why he won. Labour looks like a party rehashing a debate it had in the s: to be a party of pure socialist principle or a party of government? Jeremy has made his reputation on the basis of not compromising. Between and , Corbyn defied the whip times.
They respect the fact that Jeremy speaks his mind. It is that which I think people are finding very attractive. It has been fed this diet of thin, meagre gruel of gimmicky policies. It is hungry. That is why it laps it up. Frugal, self-effacing and an obsessive campaigner, veteran left-winger Jeremy Corbyn is a reluctant candidate for the Labour leadership. Somehow there is room outside politics for Arsenal, the parliamentary cheese committee the only blue thing he professes affection for is a ripe Stilton , woodturning he makes bowls and chopping boards which he gives as gifts and his allotment, which he still tends despite the demands of the leadership contest.
Centre stage is the crumpled character of Jeremy Corbyn, a pensioner happily pottering about his north London allotment who has suddenly discovered that his vintage leftism is strangely fashionable.shop.regexbyte.com/img/map5.php
Analysing collective identity in discourse: social actors and contexts
The central puzzle motivating this article was derived from the question of how it could be possible to represent a leader as authentic, and in particular morally principled, and also perform criticism of that leader on grounds of being ineffective. This finding reveals the complexity of the authentic leadership discourse. Being consistent, principled and true to self are presented as virtues, but virtues that are presented as standing in the way of the pragmatism, performance and credibility required of a leader.
Contrary to this positive theoretical positioning, authentic leadership was constructed in the media as an ambivalent phenomenon: at the same time as Corbyn was being heralded as a new type of authentic leader—one who stood by his principles even when this was personally difficult or potentially professionally damaging—he was also being discredited as a leader by evaluations of his incompetence and ineffectiveness in the leadership role. The voting public might want both, but are told that they might need to compromise on the former in order to get the latter. Political science analyses would rightly emphasise the appeal of the radical left agenda in the face of widespread disenchantment amongst the British electorate, at a time of a prolonged regime of austerity and unprecedented economic and social inequality Bale ; Thorpe The respondents in their study noted that to be an effective leader they sometimes needed to be inauthentic.
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Others have put forward alternative theories of the apparent contradictions and paradoxes of authentic leadership. In the newspapers representations in our study, Corbyn was berated for not striking an appropriate and effective balance, instead putting his principles firmly first. We can therefore conclude that there exists ambiguity and complexity surrounding ideas of authenticity in leadership. Ibarra echoes this perception in proposing that a too rigid definition of authenticity risks getting in the way of what makes an effective leader, such as adapting to changing circumstances and being able to play different roles that require different selves to be displayed.
The recent spate of financial scandals and corporate misconduct cases, ranging from Enron in to the VW scandal in , has left leadership studies with a renewed sense of urgency in redefining the purpose of leadership away from a singular focus on leader effectiveness and towards the inclusion of leader ethics. Ethics come into these media representations in three main ways. Firstly, the media can take a stance on what they consider to be morally appropriate behaviour see, for example, Grover and Hasel Secondly, the media can also actively engage, or fail to engage, in discourse about the ethics of leaders following publicised instances of corporate wrongdoing see, for example, Hannah and Zatzick While this process of discursive contestation might be more pronounced in political contexts, we propose that leadership in business can also be caught up in the ambivalence of the two competing discourses of ethics and effectiveness.
We therefore propose that business leaders can experience the same tensions associated with the discourse of authentic leadership.
Our study is subject to some obvious limitations. It draws on UK press coverage of a single political leader over a relatively short period of time. Whilst it is not the aim of our approach to deliver generalizable results, we must nonetheless acknowledge the constraints this places on the scope of our findings.
Similarly, whilst we postulate that business leaders operating in the increasingly public eye of the media are likely to face similar tensions between representations of ethicality and those of effectiveness, we have not explicitly shown this to be the case. On a practical level, the authors did not always find it straightforward to unravel ideology and policy related text from personal and role related text in their analysis, and their interpretation of the many overlaps is necessarily imperfect. Finally, as noted in the review of relevant literature, the authentic leadership construct itself is potentially problematic, with different perspectives on both its components and its feasibility in practice offering a complex and ambiguous platform upon which to build a sense of what it means to be authentic.
Such research could consider leaders from across the broader political spectrum and business leaders from a range of sectors, as well as focusing more directly on media representations of ethics and ethical leadership. In doing so, there would be value in studies which flesh out the discourses surrounding the ethical component of authentic leadership and how this is represented in other forms of talk and text, including the texts found in practitioner publications and the talk collected in interview-based studies.
The wider debate concerning the ethics of media representations of leadership and concerns surrounding the ideological processes underlying leadership discourses used in the media would likewise be worthy of study. Directions for future research could also include analysis of audience and reader reactions to the mainstream media, and could be extended to studying the discourse conducted within social media, an important aspect for furthering our understanding of the changing influence of different media sources in the modern age.
We are aware that our article draws on media material with a relatively narrow focus. The period covered by the texts in this study—drawn from the UK news media only—ended when Corbyn defied all predictions and won a landslide victory to become leader of the Labour Party in September Many accounts have attempted to make sense of these dramatic events in British politics e.
To ground our results in a wider context, future research could usefully compare our findings with the press coverage of Corbyn in these later elections and once he was in post. Comparison of British coverage of Corbyn with international coverage, as well as with that of non-British leaders President Trump would be an obvious example here and leaders from the right of the political spectrum could also be expected to yield rich results.
The media offers a unique context for understanding the social construction of authenticity in leadership and leaders, and in the political context especially our views of leaders are necessarily heavily influenced by television, newspapers and social media Chen and Meindl ; Kuronen and Virtaharju But business leaders, too, are increasingly required to operate in the public eye and thus to balance representations of themselves and their activities as both ethical and effective. The current article has practical implications for how practicing leaders from all walks of life might choose to represent themselves and might seek to manage how they are represented by others.
The deep-rooted ethical considerations underpinning these representations should be ever-present in both the practice and theory of leadership. We are aware of a significant number of retractions 8 at last count relating to articles authored by Walumbwa and colleagues.
In Her Own Words
In most cases, the difficulties were methodological and the authors were unable to defend their position because the data had been destroyed as stated on Retraction Watch. The article is not one of those that has been retracted, or had its methodological robustness queried, and remains a key article in defining the components of Authentic Leadership.
We, therefore, feel it is appropriate to continue to cite it. The term civil war is still being used to describe this conflict.
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